Murkowski, Hirono, Kaine Call on the Senate to Ratify UN Convention on the Law of the Sea

Today, U.S. Senators Lisa Murkowski (R-AK), Mazie K. Hirono (D-HI) and Tim Kaine (D-VA) introduced a resolution calling for the United States Senate to ratify the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). UNCLOS, which has been ratified by 166 nations and the European Union, details the rights and responsibilities of countries regarding the world’s oceans, including guidelines for businesses and the management of marine natural resources. U.S. Representatives Joe Courtney (D-CT) and Don Young (R-AK) introduced a similar resolution in the U.S. House of Representatives last month.

“Our world faces the evolving challenges of those seeking to prevent international freedom of navigation across the world, including in the Strait of Hormuz, the South China Sea, the Arctic, and the Black Sea. It is time for the United States to become party to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which provides a legal framework to protect the right of free passage through territorial seas,” Senator Hirono said. “I join Senator Murkowski and Senator Kaine in calling for the long-overdue ratification of UNCLOS, because the United States should play an active role in decisions that impact Hawaii and the ocean around us.”

“For years now I have supported ratification of United States accession to the Law of the Sea. The treaty provides immense value to the U.S., helping to avoid conflict by resolving issues diplomatically and through litigation rather than relying on customary law and military presence.  In the South China Sea, the treaty would enable us to contest unlawful Chinese claims through an international tribunal rather than military escalation and dangerous freedom of navigation operations prone to miscalculation.  In the Arctic, the treaty would allow us to resolve territorial disputes of continental shelf claims as we see more access in a region that up to this point in time has been inaccessible.  But, without ratification, the U.S. lacks a seat at the table for these negotiations,” Senator Murkowski said.

“The Senate’s failure to ratify UNCLOS places the United States at a disadvantage when dealing with threats to our national security and commerce, particularly by China in the South China Sea. This resolution rightfully underscores the urgent need for the Senate to finally approve the Convention, and the broad support among military leaders and the business community for ratification. I will continue to engage with the Biden administration and my colleagues on the Foreign Relations Committee to make progress on this vital issue,” Senator Kaine said.

“China and Russia haven’t stopped pushing the boundaries of their maritime claims, and the Senate has a chance to put more weight behind America’s response by ratifying the UNCLOS treaty,” Congressman Courtney said. “Being one of the few holdout nations who hasn’t ratified UNCLOS cuts off our ability to meaningfully participate in Law of the Sea discussions and rulings. Even more importantly, it undermines the mission of our sea services, and our diplomatic standing to defend the international rule of law. We’ve seen the real-world consequences of Russia’s willingness to disregard the terms of UNCLOS, and in the Indo-Pacific, China continues to protest the U.S. Navy’s legitimate freedom of navigation operations, and to encroach on territorial waters of American allies around the globe. We can’t waste any more time—we’ve got ensure the U.S. can approach any future discussions from a legitimate position based firmly in our ratification of the Law of the Sea. I enthusiastically support Senator Hirono’s resolution, and as a fellow Seapower Subcommittee Chair will do everything in my power to assist her effort.” 

“As vessel traffic and the growing presence of foreign interests continue to increase in the Arctic, it is more important than ever to work with our allies to help guarantee freedom of navigation in the region,” Congressman Don Young said. “I want to thank Senators Murkowski, Hirono, and Kaine for recognizing the urgent need to ratify the UNCLOS treaty by introducing this resolution. Ratification will help ensure America’s role as a leading advocate for protecting the freedom of vessels to navigate Arctic waters, and will solidify our place in discussions focused on future development in the region.”

The United States signed UNCLOS on July 29, 1994, but the U.S. Senate has not yet voted to ratify the treaty, despite urging from environmental, scientific, labor, and industry organizations. Senators Hirono and Murkowski, along with Representatives Courtney and Young, also called for the Senate to ratify UNCLOS in 2019.

The full text of the Senate resolution can be found here.